Professor Jeanne S. Chall was an expert on reading development and she proposed that their were six developmental stages that describe how children learn to read as summarized in the table below (Chall,1983).
Chall’s Stages of reading chart (seen below) was obtained from the LandMark Outreach. They provide teachers professional development courses, school consultations & other programs to empower students with SLDs as dyslexia.
Chall’s Stages Of Reading Development
Chall on Stages of Reading Development – New Learning Online
Chall, Jeanne. 1983. Stages of Reading Development. New York: McGraw Hill. pp. 10-24.
In his research on the cognitive development of children Jerome Bruner views the infant as an intelligent and active problem solver from birth, with intellectual abilities basically similar to those of the adult. Bruner’s investigations of children’s cognitive development proposed a 3-tiered system of internal representations: enactive (action-based), iconic (image-based), and symbolic (language-based).
Bruner’s studies helped to introduce Jean Piaget’s concept of developmental stages of cognition into the classroom. Over the course of his three decades at Harvard, Bruner published works on perceptual organization, cognition, and learning theory.
According to Bruner, all children have natural curiosity and a desire to become competent at various learning tasks.
“However, when a task presents itself as being too difficult the child becomes bored.”
In addition, he introduced the “spiral curriculum,” in which subjects are taught to students year after year at increasing levels of complexity. This involved information being structured so that complex ideas can be taught at a simplified level first.
The idea is that the student should review particular concepts over and over again during their educative experience. Building their understanding and requiring more sophisticated cognitive strategies (and thus increase the sophistication of their understanding).
To find out more information regarding reading development and disorders see this website: